多田隈 尚史 (TADAKUMA, Hisashi)

多田隈 尚史 (TADAKUMA, Hisashi)

東京大学 新領域創成科学研究科 助教
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Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct cleavage of complementary target RNAs via an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that contains Argonatute2 protein at its core. However, what happens after target cleavage remains unclear. Here we analyzed the cleavage reaction by Drosophila Argonaute2-RISC using single-molecule imaging and revealed a series of intermediate states in target recognition, cleavage, and product release. Our data suggest that, after cleavage, RISC generally releases the 5' cleavage fragment from the guide 3' supplementary region first and then the 3' fragment from the seed region, highlighting the reinforcement of the seed pairing in RISC. However, this order can be reversed by extreme stabilization of the 3' supplementary region or mismatches in the seed region. Therefore, the release order of the two cleavage fragments is influenced by the stability in each region, in contrast to the unidirectional base pairing propagation from the seed to the 3' supplementary region upon target recognition.

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Small RNAs such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) silence the expression of their complementary target messenger RNAs via the formation of effector RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which contain Argonaute (Ago) family proteins at their core. Although loading of siRNA duplexes into Drosophila Ago2 requires the Dicer-2-R2D2 heterodimer and the Hsc70/Hsp90 (Hsp90 also known as Hsp83) chaperone machinery, the details of RISC assembly remain unclear. Here we reconstitute RISC assembly using only Ago2, Dicer-2, R2D2, Hsc70, Hsp90, Hop, Droj2 (an Hsp40 homologue) and p23. By following the assembly of single RISC molecules, we find that, in the absence of the chaperone machinery, an siRNA bound to Dicer-2-R2D2 associates with Ago2 only transiently. The chaperone machinery extends the dwell time of the Dicer-2-R2D2-siRNA complex on Ago2, in a manner dependent on recognition of the 5'-phosphate on the siRNA guide strand. We propose that the chaperone machinery supports a productive state of Ago2, allowing it to load siRNA duplexes from Dicer-2-R2D2 and thereby assemble RISC.

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